‘The lockdown in India has impacted the livelihoods of a large proportion of the country’s nearly 40 million internal migrants. Around 50,000–60,000 moved from urban centers to rural areas of origin in the span of a few days’, the world bank has said in a report recently. It is a compulsive reverse migration, may or may not be temporary, due to corona outbreak.
The 2017 Economic Survey of India estimated that between 2011 and 2016 there were close to 9 million inter-state migrants. In 2011, the total number of internal migrants was 139 million. These numbers relay the scale of the present crisis and the number of people that may be affected. Most internal migrants come from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar followed by Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal.
Migration as compulsion
Migration is a growing global phenomenon. Clashes, savagery and cataclysmic events are among the underlying drivers of relocation and forced displacement.
Numerous transients are constrained to move in light of financial variables, including destitution, nourishment uncertainty, absence of business openings, restricted access to social insurance, characteristic asset exhaustion and the antagonistic effects of ecological corruption and environmental change.
The choice to move is mind boggling – it isn’t only a basic judicious decision by people looking to expand wages yet a choice established in social relations and impacted by history, culture, and arrangement systems as, bounteous research has appeared. Despite the fact that the choice to relocate can’t be clarified through shortsighted push-and-pull investigations it helps to distinguish a portion of the new pushes and pulls that are confronting individuals who live in minimal territories of India today.
As economies experience auxiliary change and the farming area turns out to be moderately littler, the development of individuals inside and across nations is inescapable. Protected, methodical and ordinary migration adds to maintainable turn of events, monetary development and nourishment security. Be that as it may, huge developments of individuals present complex difficulties.
Reverse Migration: an opportunity ?
We contend that livelihood expansion in provincial India would lead to a general economy-wide increment in profitability, and encourage swifter auxiliary change and destitution decrease. We feature the job of the non-ranch segment for work creation in rustic regions, particularly along the provincial urban continuum for auxiliary change to happen.
Despite the fact that migration out of agriculture has always been a part of the economic development process, policy makers have long feared that migration from rural areas reduces agricultural production. Now in this sudden and unexpected reversed migration situation, what will be the impact ? it can be a puzzle for policy makers. This can be a matter of worry for industries in urban areas, but at the same time it opens the door of opportunities in rural India.
Within a country, rural youth opportunities vary by location. While an economy may be experiencing structural and rural transformations at the national level, not all areas within the country will be changing at the same pace.
In rural areas, opportunities are largely determined by the extent of market access (agricultural output, input, labour, finance and other markets), which is what, in turn, determines the area’s commercialization potential, and by the nature of the natural resource base, which is what, in turn, determines the potential agricultural productivity of the area. Both of these factors have strong spatial dimensions and together they form the rural opportunity space. This financial topography system shapes what is workable for provincial youth, autonomously of the nearby setting, explicit social standards or individual inclinations. Let’s hope for positive reaction even under odd circumstances. Every cloud has a silver lining.